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The Seamless Rolled Ring Forging Process ....
The production of seamless forged rings is often performed by a process called Ring Rolling on rolling mills. These mills vary in size to produce rings with outside diameters of just a few inches to over 300" and in weights from a single pound up to over 300,000 pounds.

The process starts with a circular perform of metal that has been previously upset and to form a hollow "Donut". placed over the idler or mandrel roll. These idler roll then moves under pressure toward a drive roll that continuously rotates to reduce the wall thickness, thereby increasing the diameters (I.D. and O.D.) of the resulting ring.

Seamless rings can be produced in configurations ranging from flat, washer-like parts to tall, cylindrical shapes, with heights ranging from less than an inch to more than 9 feet. Wall thickness to height ratios of rings typically range from 1:16 up to 16:1, although greater proportions can be achieved with special processing. The simplest and most commonly used shape is a rectangular cross-section ring, but shaped tooling can be used to produce seamless rolled rings in complex, custom shapes with contours on the inside and/or outside diameters.
1. The ring rolling process typically begins with upsetting of the starting stock on flat dies at its plastic deformation temperature - in the case of grade 1020 steel, approximately 2200 degrees Fahrenheit.
2. Piercing involves forcing a punch into the hot upset stock causing metal to be displaced radially, as shown by the illustration.
3. A subsequent operation, shearing, serves to remove the small punchout ...
4. ...producing a completed hole through the stock, which is now ready for the ring rolling operation itself. At this point the stock is called a preform.
5. The doughnut-shaped preform is slipped over the ID roll shown here from an "above" view.
6. A side view of the ring mill and preform workpiece, which squeezes it against the OD roll which imparts rotary action...
The Ring rolling process offers a Unique Product homogeneous circumferential grain flow, ease of fabrication and machining, and versatility in material, size, mass and geometry. Seamless rolled rings are produced in thousands of different cross-sectional shapes. Ring rolling has developed from and art into strictly controlled engineering process, with extremely high technology being used to construct the current breed of ring rolling lines.
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